EUA monitors the international trade agreements which the European Commission negotiates, on behalf of EU member states, with third country partners and regions. While such agreements do not necessarily include higher education, neither do they automatically exclude it.
Article 1.3 of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) excludes “any services supplied in the exercise of governmental authority [and supplied] neither on a commercial basis nor in competition with one or more service suppliers”.
How such services are defined is nevertheless open to interpretation. As higher education institutions explore diverse funding streams, the distinctions between public, private, not-for-profit and for-profit are increasingly unclear.